C Basics

Introduction to C

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C is a general-purpose, procedural programming language. Dennis Ritchie first devised C in the 1970s at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, for the purpose of implementing the UNIX operating system and utilities with the greatest possible degree of independence from specific hardware platforms. The key characteristics of the C language are the qualities that made it suitable for following purpose:

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Pre Requisites

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Before proceeding with learning C programming language you should have a basic understanding of Computer Programming terminologies. A basic understanding of any of the programming languages will help you in understanding the C programming concepts.

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The Structure of C Programs

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As C is procedural language building blocks of C program are functions. Every function is well-designed program and serves a specific purpose. Execution of C program is sequential. Standard functions are available in library which can be included in every program. Every C program must define at least one function of its own, with the special name main (): this is the first function invoked when the program starts. The main () function is the program's top level of control, and can call other functions as subroutines.

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Getting Started With C

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Printing Output

Printing output to screen is achieved using readymade library functions. One suchfunction is printf( ).

General Form of printf() is as follow: -

printf ( "<format string>", <list of variables> );

<format string> can contain,

%f for printing real values

%d for printing integer values

%c for printing character values

In addition to format specifiers like %f, %d and %c the format string may also contain any other characters. These characters are printed as they are when the printf( ) is executed.

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Comments should be used generously in the source code to make it readable.

Comments are categorized in two following ways:

1)    Begin with /* and end with */

Every statement between /* and */ will be considered as comment.

     2)    Begin with // and with the next line character

It comments entire line begin with //

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